Timeline of pie menu development by Don Hopkins.

** 1968–12–09: The Mother of All Demos

— Doug Engelbart (1968)

The Mother of All Demos, presented by Douglas Engelbart (1968)

Discussions about Engelbart from Hacker News.

Valerie Landau interviewed by Martin Wasserman: Doug Engelbart’s advice to a young software developer.

Engelbart Explains Binary Text Input.

Engelbart Using HandWriter.

Tap Wearable Keyboared and Mouse

** 1969: Wiseman’s PIXIE paper

PIXIE: A New Approach to Graphical Man-Machine Communication

Contents of Page 466–467:

Wiseman’s Notes on Radial Menus in PIXIE

History of Pie Menus

** 1984: Lynn Bartram at University of Waterloo

** 1986–02–21: Became an Honorary Weisarian

** 1986–04–18: Contacted Mitch Bradley about his Sun FORTH system

** 1986–04–13: “Theta Menus” Idea

** 1986–05–18: Email from Don Hopkins to Mark Weiser about Theta Menus

** 1986–05–19: Email from Mark Weiser to HCIL about Theta Menus

** 1986–05–29: Email form Ben Shneiderman to HCIL about Theta Menus

** 1986–06–01: X10 Theta Menus Prototype

** 1986–06–21: X10 Theta Menu Window Manager

X10 Theta Menu Window Manager

Methodology of Window Management

X10 Pie Menu Window Manager Source Code

** 1986–08–03: Heard about Gosling’s SunDew window system (later called NeWS).

SunDew: Yet Another Window Server?

Mitch Bradley mentions SunDew

Methodology of Window Management: 5. SunDew — A Distributed and Extensible Window System, by James Gosling

NeWS: The Network extensible Window System

** 1986–09: “Pie Menus” Term

** 1986–09: PostScript Pretty Pie Menu Printer for LaserWriter

PostScript Pretty Pie Menu Printer for LaserWriter

** 1986–09: “fuwm” FORTH programmable X10 pie menu window manager.

** 1986–10–15: Jack Callahan decides to perform pie menu experiment.

** 1986–11: Programmed Pie Menu Experiment in FORTH with X10 pie menu window manager.

Pie Menu Experiment


** 1986–11–18: The experiment begins!

Email about the design and execution of the pie menu experiment.

Jack Callahan’s analysis software and data.

** 1986–12–02: Found Wiseman PIXIE reference

** 1987–01–13: Pie Menu Tracking Design

Notes on pie menu tracking.

dmu -vs- dumdu

** 1987–01–23: Mark Weiser’s Pie Menu in his “SDI” game for SunView on Sun Workstation

Email about Mark Weiser’s SDI game with pie menus.

Pie Menus in SDI by Mark Weiser


** 1987–02–05: Shneiderman Tells Apple about Pie Menus

** 1987–02–10: Mark Talked to University of Maryland Patent People

** 1987–02–11: Mark Asked Me to Delay Sending an Abstract to Usenix Because of Patent Application

** 1987–03–31: Submitted Directional Selection abstract to Usenix Graphics Conference

Directional Selection is Easy as Pie Menus!

** 1987–04–24: Filled out Patent Disclosure Form

** 1987–04–27: Sent Pie Menu Paper to CACM

** 1987–05: Decided not to Patent Pie Menus

Explanation: Patenting Pie Menus, in a Nut Shell

Pie Menu FUD and Misconceptions

** 1987–05–29: Implemented first Pie Menus for NeWS

Late Night Hacking

Pie Menus for NeWS Lite Toolkit

** 1987–06: How To Choose With Pie Menus

How To Choose with Pie Menus

** 1987–06: Pie Menu Demo: I Am A Robot

I Am A Robot

** 1987–06–11: 1987 Summer Usenix Work In Progress Presentation

** 1987–08–05: Heard about Terry Higgins Pastel Graphics Editor with Pie Menus

** 1987–08–14: Submitted Usenix Work in Progress talk summary to :login;

Directional Selection is Easy as Pie Menus!

** 1987–09–11: Vaughan Pratt Suggested How to Eliminate Divides During Tracking

** 1987–09–18: My First Taste of HyperCard

** 1987–10: Pie Menu Cookbook

Pie Menu Cookbook

** 1987–10–08: 4th Usenix Computer Graphics Workshop, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Oct. 1987

** 1987–10–13: Discussed labeling pie menus with Tom Duff

** 1987–11–24: Pies Accepted at SIGCHI’88

** 1988–01–24: Joined HCIL to work on HyperTIES with Ben Shneiderman

** 1988–03: How to Choose with Pie Menus

How to Choose with Pie Menus

** 1988–03–12: Send NeWS HyperTIES prototype to Martha Zimet at Sun

** 1988–03–20: Published Mousee on NeWS-Makers

Mousee Demo

** 1988–03–30: Published work-in-progress talk summary on NeWS-makers.

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** 1988–04–09: Developed HyperTIES NeWS Front End in PostScript

** 1988–04–10: Proposal to investigate interaction techniques and display styles appropriate for the application of pie menus to window management.

Technical Writing Class Assignment

** 1988–04–19: Started implementing NeatWindow.

** 1988–05–04: Developed NeWS HyperTIES Browser Formatter with FORTH Markup Language Interpreter.

HyperTIES Architecture Diagram


** 1988–05–11: Published NeatWin Pie Menu Window Manager on NeWS-makers.

NeatWin Pie Menu Window Manager for NeWS Lite Toolkit

** 1988–05–14: Presented CHI ’88 Pie Menu Paper

An Empirical Comparison of Pie vs. Linear Menus

** 1988–05–24: Asked Tony Hoeber at Sun about Pie Menus for OPEN LOOK.

** 1988–06–01: Jakob Nielsen CHI’88 Trip Report

** 1988–08–02: HyperTIES Space Telescope Demo Runs

** 1988–08–04: NCR Sponsors Like HyperTies

** 1988–06: Developed Emacs 2.20 with Pie Menus at UniPress Software

** 1988–08–21: Pie menus for 4Sight NeWS for SGI Workstation.

** 1988–08–21: Tabbed Windows for NeWS Lite Toolkit and Emacs

** 1988–08–28: Published Pie Menus, Pull-Out Pies, NeatWin, and Pseudo-Scientific Visualizer on NeWS-makers.

** 1988–09: Published UniPress Emacs 2.20 with Pie Menus and Tabbed Windows (NeMACS)

** 1989–09: Developed HyperTies Authoring Tool with UniPress Emacs

Designing to Facilitate Browsing: a Look Back at the HyperTIES Workstation Browser.

HCIL Demo — HyperTIES Browsing

Hypertext Research: The Development of HyperTIES

HCIL Demo — HyperTIES Authoring with UniPress Emacs on NeWS


** 1988–09–30: Demonstrated NeWS Pie Menus, HyperTIES, NeMACS, etc at Sun User Group Southwest Regional Conference in Albuquerque

** 1988–10–25: Gave pie menu demos to Steve Jobs and Bill Joy at Educom.

** 1988–11–02: Heard back from CACM about pie menu paper.

The unpublished paper we submitted to CACM:

Old Pie Paper Directory

Pie Paper Comments

** 1989–01–21: Started work on PSIBER Space Deck visual PostScript programming environment with pie menus

** 1989–03–07: SoftMenu User Editable Pie Menus for NeWS Lite Toolkit

** 1989–04–21: Precision Pie Menu

Precision Pie Demo

** 1989–04–22: The scoop on GoodNeWS !!!

** 1989–03–10: Released QuickWin Pie Menu Based Window Manager

** 1989–03–10: Released Pie Menus with “Direct Pac-Manipulation” Feedback

** 1989–03–11: Released NeWS CyberSpace Deck and Pseudo Scientific Visualizer with Pie Menus

** 1989–03–22: Heard About Pie Menus for HyperCard

** 1989–05–23: Handy Pie Menu Demo

Handy Pie Menu Demo

** 1989–07–01: Release Pie Menus for NeWS on NeWS-makers.

** 1989–07–22: Wrote The CyberSpace Deck Manual

CyberSpace Deck Manual

** 1989–08–19: First Release of PostScript Interactive Bug Eradication Routines

** 1989–10–12: Spiral pies.

** 1989–10–20: Recorded Pie Menu Demos for All The Widgets

** 1989–11–16: Presented The Shape of PSIBER Space at 1989 Usenix Graphics Conference in Monterey, CA

** 1989–11–20: Pie Menus for NDE 1.0 (NeWS Development Environment) for Sun Workstations

** 1989–12–22: Generic Pie Menu Tracking and Layout Code in C

** 1989–12–26: First saw SimCity

** 1989–12–30: Proposed Pie Menus for XView

** 1990–02–11: Released Tabbed Frames for NDE 1.0 (NeWS Development Environment) for Sun Workstations

** 1990–03–15: GoodNeWS & HyperNeWS version 1.3 NOW AVAILABLE!!!!

** 1990–04–03: CHI’90 Empowered Performance

** 1990–10–23: PizzaTool: How I Ordered My First Pizza Over The Internet

** 1990–11–30: Corresponded with Gordon Kurtenbach about Pie Menus

** 1990–12–10: Implemented Pie Menus and Tabbed Windows for TNT 2.0 (The NeWS Toolkit)

** 1991–04: Ben Shneiderman introduces Pie Menus developed by Don Hopkins at UMD Human Computer Interaction Lab

** 1991–08–03: Developed “OWM” X11/NeWS ICCCM Window Manager with Tabs and Pies

** 1991–12: Doctor Dobb’s Journal Cover Article, UI Issue: The Design and Implementation of Pie Menus

** 1992–02: Developed HyperLook for NeWS and SimCity for HyperLook at the Turing Institute in Glasgow

** 1992–02: Developed SimCity for HyperLook on NeWS

** 1992–10: Multi Player SimCity for TCL/Tk on X11

** 1992–10: “piewm” for X11

** 1993–04–24: Multi Player SimCity at InterCHI ’93 Interactive Experience

** 1993–06–15: Gave “Self Revealing Gesture Interfaces” at “New Paradigms for Using Computers” workshop at IBM Almaden Research Center

** 1994–07–07: Multi Player SimCity at The Electric Carnival at Lollapalooza

** 1995: ScriptX Pie Menus

** 1995–05–11: DreamScape for ScriptX

** 1997–07: Scientific American Article: Taking Computers to Task

** 1997–01: The Sims at Maxis

** 1997–07–21: OLE/ActiveX Pie Menus for Windows

** 1998–10–13: Xerox PARC “Natural Selection” Pie Menu Talk

** 1999–04–27: Mark Weiser Passed Away

** 2001–05–14: Demonstrated Multi Player SimCityNet with Pie Menus at MIT Media Lab Digital Life Meeting

** 2001–07–29: JavaScript Pie Menus for Internet Explorer

** 2001–12: ConnectedTV for Palm

** 2002–07–25: Game Programming GEMS 3: Natural Selection: The Evolution of Pie Menus

** 2003–03–10: OpenLaszlo Pie Menus for Flash, used for SimFaux, and later Micropolis (SimCity)

** 2003–08–06: Pie Menus for Controlling Robot Waiter

** 2006–09–05: Pet Rock Remote Control with Pie Menus on PocketPC

** 2006–12: Open Sourcing SimCity

** 2007–02–22: PyGTK for Python

** 2007–11–10: EA has just announced OLPC SimCity!

** 2008–08–12: iLoci on iOS

** 2009–08–14: Micropolis: Constructionist Educational Open Source SimCity

** 2010–04: Unity3D Pie Menus

** 2010–04: MediaGraph on Unity3D

** 2012: PieCraft

** 2013: JavaScript Pie Menus (jQuery)

** 2013: Pantomime on Unity3D

** 2016: VR Pie Menus for UnityJS in JavaScript on Unity3D

** 2017: High Fidelity VR Pie Menus

** 2018: Canvas Pie Menus for UnityJS in JavaScript on Unity3D

** The Future

Mobile, Multi Device, Ubiquitous Computing

Gesture, Multitouch

Tilt, Shake

Force Feedback



aQuery: Like jQuery for Accessibility


User interface flower child. Pie menus, PizzaTool, SimCity, The Sims, Visual Programming, VR, AR, Unity3D / JavaScript bridge.

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